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Explanation of the Main Charging Connector Standards of Electric Vehicles in the World

Obviously, new energy vehicles based on pure electricity have become the general trend of the automobile industry. However, under the current situation that battery technology is difficult to make a breakthrough in a short time, electric vehicles have widely laid out charging facilities, hoping to solve the worries of car owners through adequate charging equipment. However, the charging connector of electric vehicle, as a vital component of charging equipment, has been faced with direct conflict because of different standards in different countries. Here, we will sort out all kinds of charging connector standards for electric vehicles in the world.


Combo


Combo socket can allow electric vehicles to charge slowly and quickly. It is the most widely used socket type in Europe at present, including Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Daimler, Ford, General Motors, Porsche and Volkswagen, all of which are equipped with the charging interface developed by SAE (American Society of Automotive Engineers).


On October 2nd, 2012, the revised draft of SAE J1772, which was voted by the members of SAE related committees, became the only official DC charging standard in the world. Combo Connector is the core of the standard for DC fast charging based on the revised version of J1772.


The previous version of this standard (formulated in 2010) defined the specifications of the basic J1772 connector for AC charging, with a low charging level (AC Level1 for 120V, Level2 for 240V). This basic connector has been widely used today, and is compatible with Nissan Leaf, Chevrolet Volanda and Mitsubishi i-MiEV electric vehicles. In addition to all the original functions, Combo Connector in the new version of J1772 standard formulated in 2012 has two more pins, which can be used for DC fast charging, but it is not compatible with the old electric vehicles currently produced.


Advantages: The biggest advantage of Combo Connector is that in the future, automobile manufacturers can adopt a socket on their new models, which is not only suitable for the first generation of smaller basic AC connectors, but also for the second generation of larger Combo Connector, which can provide DC and AC currents and charge them at two different speeds.


Disadvantages: In the fast charging mode, the charging station needs to provide a maximum voltage of 500 volts and a current of 200 amps.


Tesla


Tesla has its own charging standard, claiming that it can be fully charged within 30 minutes and can run more than 300 kilometers. Therefore, the highest capacity of the charging socket can reach 120kw and the highest current can reach 80A.


At present, Tesla has 908 super charging stations in the United States. In order to enter China, Tesla has also established seven super charging stations in China, including three in Shanghai, two in Beijing, one in Hangzhou and one in Shenzhen. In addition, in order to better integrate into various regions, Tesla plans to abandon the control of charging standards and adopt national standards of various countries, which have been implemented in China.


Advantages: Advanced technology and high charging efficiency.


Disadvantages: Contrary to national standards, it is difficult to increase sales without compromise; After compromise, the charging efficiency will be reduced, and it is in a dilemma.


CCS


In order to change the chaotic status quo of charging interface standards, eight major American and German manufacturers Ford, GM, Chrysler, Audi, BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen and Porsche released the "Joint Charging System" in 2012. "Combined Charging System", that is, "CCS" standard.


"Combined charging system" can unify all existing charging interfaces, so that one interface can complete four modes: single-phase AC charging, fast three-phase AC charging, household DC charging and overspeed DC charging.


AE has selected the joint charging system as its standard. Besides SAE, the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) has also announced that it has selected the joint charging system as the DC/AC charging interface, which will be used for all plug-in electric vehicles sold in Europe from 2017. Since Germany and China unified the charging standards for electric vehicles last year, China has also joined the European and American camps, bringing unprecedented opportunities for the development of electric vehicles in China. Zhinuo 1E, Audi A3e-tron, Beiqi E150EV, BMW i3, Tengshi, Volkswagen e-up, Changan Yidong EV and SmartEV all belong to the "CCS" standard camp.


Advantages: BMW, Daimler and Volkswagen, the three German automakers, will increase their investment in electric vehicles in China, and CCS standards may be more favorable to China.


Disadvantages: Electric vehicles that support the "CCS" standard either have a small sales volume or have just started to be sold.

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